Thursday, May 25, 2006

01. Mahd Dynasty to Arab Invasion

01. Mahd Dynasty to Arab Invasion

"One of the earliest civilizations of the world developed in Kurdestan.? With the formation of the Median State in the first millennium BC, this region became especially important.? The area which is now Iranian Azerbaijan and Kurdestan formed the Western part, that is, one of the three parts of the Median territory and was called "Mahd Atro-paten" [History of Mahd, A.M. Diakonov, Keshavarz Trans., P.79].? Production in these areas was more advanced than the northern and western parts of Median territory.? [ibid P.182]. According to Diakanov, the Russian historian, in the Western Media, a non-Iranian language called "Kutie" was spoken from the ninth to the seventh century BC, ... and Iranian languages prevailed only in the Eastern parts, which included the present-day Tehran area (Rey) and Esfahan.? The "Kutie" language is regarded by other historians as one of the Iranian languages, from which the Kurdish language has stemmed [ibid, P.146].

The tribes inhabiting Western Media played an important role in the Median civilization and it seems that since the time of the founding of Mahd Dynasty, the Kurdish people have not had such a strong presence in the central governments of Iran.

In 550BC, Ekbatana (where now Hamadan is), the capital of the Mahd Dynasty, was taken by Cyrus, the Achaemenian, and thus ended the reign of the Mahd.? From the formation of the Achaemenian State, with Cyrus as its first chief, to the Muslim invasion of Iran (642AD), that is, for one thousand years, it is the tribes of central Iran, particularly the Pars's (Persian proper) who occupied the dominant position in the central governments.? According to Herodotus, the Greek historian, the Persians had chafed at the Median rule long before they came into positions of leadership and overthrew it" [History of Iran, Pigolovskay et al, Keshavarz Trans P.16].

Pigolovskay writes that in the new, Achaemenian government, the Medians continued to hold important positions along with with the Persians, that Ekbatana also served as the capital of the (FIRST) Persians, and it was further reinforced and made into an exceppent fortress [ibid, P16].

With invasion of Iran by Alexander of Macedonia (330 BC), the "First Persians" (Achaemenians) fell and 83 years of Greek rule (Selokids) started.? This rule ended in 250 BC, with creation of the Ashkonid State.? The Ashkanis (Parthians) were North-Iranians, who enjoyed popular support in fighting the Selokid.? During the reign of Parthians, the western part of Iran found more significance and after the conquering the Central Asia, this dynasty became a world power and Hamadan was their summer capital?? The Ashkanic rule disintegrated 474 years after it was founded, presumably under repeated invasions from Romans, in 224AD, the Sasanid Dynasty was founded.? The Sasanids have also been called ?The Second Persians?. [ibid P.56]

Ardashir Papakan (or Babakan, son of Babak), the first Sasanid king, was grandson to Sasan, related to the Achaemenian royal family and Guardian of the Annahita Temple.? With the accession of Ardeshir to the thrown, the Persians again became the mainstay of the central government.? In this period, too, which ends with the Muslim conquest of 642AD western Iran continues to be an important region of the Iranian empire.? During the reign of Sasanids, the dominance of Pars's in Iran's central government became more and more established.? Seven main families of Sasan, Karen, Mehran, Zanj, Ahkenids, and Sooren were at the head of Iranian state.? The capital of the Sasanids was Tisfun, or Madayen, near where Baghdad is situated. [ibid P.522]

Thus from the time of the fall of Mahd Dynasty till the victory of Arabs (642AD), the central government of Iran was mainly composed of Pars's, but the western part of Iran (including Kurdestan) was nonetheless one of the main regions of Iranian civilization and most of Iranian capitals were located in that region.